Leadership is regarded as a social influence of initiation and guidance for organizational operation and change. Surugiu and Surugiu (2012) stated that leadership is seen as a “social process of exchange in which the leader gives something to those who follow him” (p. 303). This process has three variables: the leader, the followers and the situation. Leaders envision the future of the organization to develop and implement business strategies and set the strategic direction of the organization. The most important responsibilities of the leaders are duties related to the achievement of objectives that interested subordinates, and in the same time, improved the organizations’ development. Thus, an effective leader “correlates subordinate’s objectives to the objectives of the organization” (Surugiu & Surugiu, 2012, p. 305).
Leaders should be good managers. During normal business operations of non-crisis time, leaders perform many daily management tasks. When working on managers’ job duties, leaders are responsible for creating order and stability through activities such as planning and budgeting, organizing and controlling. At the same time, leaders should play the leadership role to motivating and inspiring individuals to energize them to overcome barriers to change, aligning them behind a clear vision, and creating productive change that enables the organization to achieve its ambitions (Passmore, 2010).
In normal, non-crisis operations, leaders are expected to perform their appointed jobs such as directing a group with an assigned task. Subordinates expect their leaders to be able to share the vision, understand the people’s needs, and support workers’ daily job and performance. The upper management would expect leaders in all levels to understand organizational goals, set achievement plans, and delegate responsibility to proper persons (Mangi, Ghumro, & Abidi, 2011).
An organizational leader is expected to be capable for stepping up to handle up-coming crisis. Leaders during crisis face challenges distinctly different from ordinary business operations. Crisis management is a critical leadership function that requires leaders to utilize knowledge and skills different from what required for day-to-day tasks. Because “crisis is not a regular part of most work environments, facing crisis situations requires leaders to be well prepared for the unknown” (Muffet-Willett & Kruse, 2009, p. 248).
Mangi, R., Ghumro, I., & Abidi, A. (2011). A View on leadership skills and qualities with reference to crisis, change and employee relationship. Interdisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research In Business, 3(7), 398-408.
Passmore, J. (2010). Leadership coaching: Working with leaders to develop elite performance. London, UK: Kogan Page Limited.
Surugiu, F., & Surugiu, I. (2012). Leadership and crisis management during crisis situations. Constanta Maritime University Annals, 13(17), 303-306.